The major human diseases like as diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and cancer are involved in failure of human metabolic systems. Therefore, metabolism is an important biological process, but these are complex and highly interconnected each other's. The challenge becomes how to integrate this data to maximize the amount of useful biological information that can be extracted. A serious problem of pathway-based analysis is that the computational time increases exponentially with an increase in network sizes, which makes the computation of the all pathway expensive and impracticable for large- or genome-scale networks. To address such aforementioned problem, we developed a pathway-based analysis complementary elementary mode, exposed a new window for a large-scale metabolic network, greatly reducing the computational time and memory cost. This book greatly attracts a broad range of scientists who are interested in systems biotechnology, synthetic biology, and bioinformatics, because it provides a method critically useful for analysis of a large-scale metabolic network map.
Turbulent combustion with compositionally inhomogeneous inlets is found in many practical applications. Investigations of inhomogeneous inlet conditions and current modeling of mixed-mode combustion is rather limited. This book presents PDF calculations of piloted turbulent flames where the level of inhomogeneity at the inlet varies and different departures from blow-off exist. Five _ames are investigated numerically to study their structure in the region where the interactions between turbulence and chemistry are high. The studied burner has been modified from the standard configuration with the addition of a central tube carrying fuel that can slide within the outer tube carrying air to induce the compositional inhomogeneity at the jet exit plane. A transport equation for the composition PDF is solved using the Lagrangian particle-based Monte Carlo method in FLUENT to facilitate the implementation of detailed chemical kinetics. Extensive comparisons between the predictions and experimental measurements are made. The flame structures are adequately predicted but additional developments are needed to enable the computation of the mixed-modes of combustion present in these flames.
Computation of spectral parameters of Lanthanides play a vital role in the modern era of chemistry because of its applications in biochemical research. Due to the biological activities of amino acid and the various co-ordination numbers of Lanthanides, computation of spectral parameters of Lanthanide - amino acid interaction, opens a significant role in the modern chemistry. First chapter is general features of Lanthanides and its scope in biological and clinical fields.Second chapter elaborates the theoretical spectral properties - both magnetic and optical. Third, fourth, fifth and sixth chapters describe the detailed study of the interaction of Lanthanides with amino acids. Numbers of tables of computed spectral parameters and the related figures are embodied for the analysis of the mode of binding of Pr (III) and Nd (III) with amino acids and the possible structure of the complexes theoretically. The book will help immensely for the academic researchers.
Traditionally, modal dispersion in multimode fiber has limited the bit rate-distance product to less than about 2 Gbit/s-km. Models for modal dispersion must take account of mode coupling by fiber imperfections and bends. In the past, mode coupling has been studied using a power-coupling model. However, this model is inherently unable to describe some effects in high-speed links using coherent laser sources, such as polarization dependence of impulse response. In this book, we describe a field coupling model for propagation in MMF, which is analogous to the model used to study polarization mode dispersion in single-mode fiber. Our model allows computation of the fiber impulse response, given a launched electric-field profile and polarization. We describe principal modes (PMs), which are free of modal dispersion. In the next step we demonstrate the use of an adaptive spatial light modulator (SLM) to launch light into PMs, preventing modal dispersion. Previously this technique has enabled transmission at bit rate-distance products over 200 Gbit/s-km. We have extended this technique to include control of signal polarization.
A detailed experimental and theoretical investigation of noise in both current mode and voltage mode amorphous silicon (a-Si) active pixel sensors (APS) has been performed. Both flicker (1/f) and thermal are considered in this study. The experimental result in this paper emphasizes the computation of the output noise variance. The theoretical analysis shows that the voltage mode APS has an advantage over the current mode APS in terms of the flicker noise due to the operation of the readout process. The experimental data are compared to the theoretical analysis and are in good agreement.
MATLAB is a numeric computation software for engineering and scientific calculations. MATLAB is increasingly being used by students, researchers, practicing engineers and technicians. The causes of MATLAB popularity are legion. Among them are its iterative mode of operation, built-in functions, simple programming, rich set of graphing facilities, possibilities for writing additional functions, and its extensive toolboxes.This book explains everything you need to know to begin using MATLAB to do all these things and more. Intermediate and advanced users will find useful information here, especially if they are making the switch to MATLAB 7 from an earlier version. The book is divided into five parts: Introduction to MATLAB, Calculation and graphs, Programming in MATLAB, Simulation with MATLAB, and Circuit analysis applications using MATLAB.
Phishing is the act of using spoofed e-mails and fraudulent web sites to trick financial organizations and customers into revealing their personal or financial information. One of the main problems of phishing e-mail detection is the unknown zero-day phishing attack. A zero-day attack is one that phishers mount using hosts that do not appear in blacklists or using techniques that evade known approaches in phishing detection. Nowadays, phishers are creating different representation techniques to create unknown zero-day phishing e-mails to breach the defenses of detectors. This book proposes the Phishing Dynamic Evolving Neural Fuzzy Framework (PDENFF) that adapts the Evolving Connectionist System (ECoS) based online learning mode enhanced by offline learning mode. The proposed framework uses a hybrid supervised/unsupervised learning approach to speed up the system as well as to detect zero-day phishing e-mail attacks with a high level of accuracy and a low memory footprint. The proposed framework was tested, and a dynamic preprocessing and feature extraction system was implemented. MATLAB was used for the connectionist framework of the system engine as well as for computation.
Highly complex designs can be described as layeredobjects whose parts are all related symmetrically.Meier offers an architecture that presents itself as a system of systems of a hyper-refinedconstruction. Such a design exemplifies formalqualities of abstraction, layering, complexity anddepth, all appearing impenetrable to any analysisusing the existing methods. The representationalmodel is built upon abstraction, projection,weighting and layering. The wall functions as adistributor of the forms of architecture: the articulation in relief and the organizationalscaffolding . A new layering strategy borrowselements from both and organizes the whole constructalong the premises of group theory. Such a synthesisarticulates the partial order lattice of theconfiguration and carries through the computation.Design is a mode of computation that explicitlyexercises both imagination and reason. A majorchallenge is the degree to which the decompositionsprovided prove visually the established discourses onthe subject. That s an aspect of further criticalresearch on the ability of this methodology to alignitself with existing analytical discourses and provethem or not.
The formalism of P systems was introduced by Gheorghe Paun under the name of membrane systems about ten years ago, yet just recently new derivation modes and halting conditions have been proposed. For developing comparable results, a formal description of their functioning, in particular, of a derivation step was necessary. A general formal framework of networks of cells was introduced to capture most of the essential features of static (tissue) P systems and to define their functioning in a formal way. In this book, the formal framework is extended by some new examples as well as by new halting methods and derivation modes. With non-halting computations, we even can go beyond Turing computability. P systems with non-co-operative rules and the maximally parallel derivation mode characterize families of sets of natural numbers defined by Lindenmayer systems when considering the results obtained in a specific output cell in every derivation step during any computation. With the new derivation mode of 1-restricted minimal parallelism, we are able to model spiking neural P systems as well as purely catalytic P systems as networks of cells.