Floating point division is a core arithmetic widely used in scientific and engineering applications. This work proposed architecture for double precision floating point division. This architecture is designed for dual-mode functionality, which can either compute on a pair of double precision operands or on two pairs of single precision operands in parallel. The architecture is based on the series expansion multiplicative methodology of mantissa computation. For this, a novel dual mode Radix-4 Modified Booth multiplier is designed, which is used iteratively in the architecture of dual-mode mantissa computation. Other key components of floating point division flow (such as leading-one-detection, left/right dynamic shifters, rounding, etc.) are also re-designed for the dual-mode operation. The proposed dual- mode architecture is synthesized using UMC 90nm technology ASIC implementation. Two versions of proposed architecture are presented, one with single stage multiplier and another with two stage multiplier. Compared to a standalone double precision division architecture, the proposed dual-mode architecture requires 17% to 19% extra hardware resources, with 3% to 5% period overhead.
Computation of spectral parameters of Lanthanides play a vital role in the modern era of chemistry because of its applications in biochemical research. Due to the biological activities of amino acid and the various co-ordination numbers of Lanthanides, computation of spectral parameters of Lanthanide - amino acid interaction, opens a significant role in the modern chemistry. First chapter is general features of Lanthanides and its scope in biological and clinical fields.Second chapter elaborates the theoretical spectral properties - both magnetic and optical. Third, fourth, fifth and sixth chapters describe the detailed study of the interaction of Lanthanides with amino acids. Numbers of tables of computed spectral parameters and the related figures are embodied for the analysis of the mode of binding of Pr (III) and Nd (III) with amino acids and the possible structure of the complexes theoretically. The book will help immensely for the academic researchers.
Wireless technologies are progressing rapidly and becoming essentials in our life environment such as smart-phones, mobile tablet pads, and laptop computers. Increasing demand for data network connectivity has made wireless local area network (WLAN) popular. IC design in CMOS process technology also has been the key for providing low-cost single chip solutions to the mobile data communications devices. This book discusses the design of a CMOS analog baseband processor including channel-select filtering with automatic gain control (AGC) for a 5- GHz CMOS WLAN receiver. A new open-loop analog gain- control algorithm for OFDM is proposed. Channel- select filters are composed of 3rd and 4th order cascaded elliptic lowpass Gm-C filters. The AGC circuit is implemented in a 0.18 µm CMOS process using newly designed circuits including linear VGA, RMS detector, and current-mode computation circuitry. The IC design techniques and ideas in the book should be helpful to anyone in the area of CMOS analog circuit design and can be useful to the junior engineers or graduate students in the field.
Traditionally, modal dispersion in multimode fiber has limited the bit rate-distance product to less than about 2 Gbit/s-km. Models for modal dispersion must take account of mode coupling by fiber imperfections and bends. In the past, mode coupling has been studied using a power-coupling model. However, this model is inherently unable to describe some effects in high-speed links using coherent laser sources, such as polarization dependence of impulse response. In this book, we describe a field coupling model for propagation in MMF, which is analogous to the model used to study polarization mode dispersion in single-mode fiber. Our model allows computation of the fiber impulse response, given a launched electric-field profile and polarization. We describe principal modes (PMs), which are free of modal dispersion. In the next step we demonstrate the use of an adaptive spatial light modulator (SLM) to launch light into PMs, preventing modal dispersion. Previously this technique has enabled transmission at bit rate-distance products over 200 Gbit/s-km. We have extended this technique to include control of signal polarization.
Phishing is the act of using spoofed e-mails and fraudulent web sites to trick financial organizations and customers into revealing their personal or financial information. One of the main problems of phishing e-mail detection is the unknown zero-day phishing attack. A zero-day attack is one that phishers mount using hosts that do not appear in blacklists or using techniques that evade known approaches in phishing detection. Nowadays, phishers are creating different representation techniques to create unknown zero-day phishing e-mails to breach the defenses of detectors. This book proposes the Phishing Dynamic Evolving Neural Fuzzy Framework (PDENFF) that adapts the Evolving Connectionist System (ECoS) based online learning mode enhanced by offline learning mode. The proposed framework uses a hybrid supervised/unsupervised learning approach to speed up the system as well as to detect zero-day phishing e-mail attacks with a high level of accuracy and a low memory footprint. The proposed framework was tested, and a dynamic preprocessing and feature extraction system was implemented. MATLAB was used for the connectionist framework of the system engine as well as for computation.
A detailed experimental and theoretical investigation of noise in both current mode and voltage mode amorphous silicon (a-Si) active pixel sensors (APS) has been performed. Both flicker (1/f) and thermal are considered in this study. The experimental result in this paper emphasizes the computation of the output noise variance. The theoretical analysis shows that the voltage mode APS has an advantage over the current mode APS in terms of the flicker noise due to the operation of the readout process. The experimental data are compared to the theoretical analysis and are in good agreement.
Highly complex designs can be described as layeredobjects whose parts are all related symmetrically.Meier offers an architecture that presents itself as a system of systems of a hyper-refinedconstruction. Such a design exemplifies formalqualities of abstraction, layering, complexity anddepth, all appearing impenetrable to any analysisusing the existing methods. The representationalmodel is built upon abstraction, projection,weighting and layering. The wall functions as adistributor of the forms of architecture: the articulation in relief and the organizationalscaffolding . A new layering strategy borrowselements from both and organizes the whole constructalong the premises of group theory. Such a synthesisarticulates the partial order lattice of theconfiguration and carries through the computation.Design is a mode of computation that explicitlyexercises both imagination and reason. A majorchallenge is the degree to which the decompositionsprovided prove visually the established discourses onthe subject. That s an aspect of further criticalresearch on the ability of this methodology to alignitself with existing analytical discourses and provethem or not.
The formalism of P systems was introduced by Gheorghe Paun under the name of membrane systems about ten years ago, yet just recently new derivation modes and halting conditions have been proposed. For developing comparable results, a formal description of their functioning, in particular, of a derivation step was necessary. A general formal framework of networks of cells was introduced to capture most of the essential features of static (tissue) P systems and to define their functioning in a formal way. In this book, the formal framework is extended by some new examples as well as by new halting methods and derivation modes. With non-halting computations, we even can go beyond Turing computability. P systems with non-co-operative rules and the maximally parallel derivation mode characterize families of sets of natural numbers defined by Lindenmayer systems when considering the results obtained in a specific output cell in every derivation step during any computation. With the new derivation mode of 1-restricted minimal parallelism, we are able to model spiking neural P systems as well as purely catalytic P systems as networks of cells.
Expansive soils are highly problematic soils with an innate capacity for swelling and shrinkage corresponding to changes in moisture regime. Because of the alternate swelling and shrinkage undergone by these soils in rainy seasons and summers, many lightly loaded civil engineering structures like residential buildings and pavements are severely cracked. It is, therefore, necessary to devise a suitable foundation for these soils. Granular pile- anchors (GPAs) are a recent foundation technique that proved quite effective in controlling the volumetric changes in expansive soils and also in improving the behaviour of expansive soils. In the design of GPAs, it is important to understand the uplift failure mode, which is basically bulging. This book on 'Bulging capacity of granular pile- anchors' discusses in detail the computation of bulging capacity of GPAs, which is nothing but the uplift failure load of GPAs. The book has considered various important parameters influencing the bulging capacity of a GPA and developed data which would be useful for both researchers and practising engineers working in the area of expansive soils.