Oral health is essential to general health and quality of life. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplement that beneficially affects the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Probiotics are still in their infancy mode, a lot of clinical evidence still required regarding strain, dose and a suitable vehicle in which they can be administered safely in all age groups and to be effective for the considerable amount of time. This book will enlight knowledge pertaining to probiotics and dental caries and discuss various aspects of probiotics.
We describe a high-throughput procedure for measuring beta-galactosidase activity in bacteria. This procedure is performed by facultative anaerobic microbial consortium Bacillus safensis. using MMRS medium in batch mode (using Erlenmeyer flasks) and at large-scale (2.0 liter Eyela made Jar fermenter) at different operating parameters namely incubation temperature and stirrer speed for optimizing microbial growth and synthesis of intracellular beta-galactosidase. Microbial growth was experimentally determined by biomass concentration, lactose and protein was estimation. Data of optimization of microbial growth kinetics is analyzed by Response surface methodology (RSM), where linear model gave better results than quadratic model in terms of standard deviation. It was brought up that the production route of intracellular beta-galactosidase associated with microbial growth, under controlled condition of varying concentration of commercial lactose in Eyela made 2.0 liter Jar fermenter is more economical and unique, leading to a large economical boon which is expected in dairy and biotechnological industries.
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have gained a lot of attention recently as a mode of converting organic matter into electricity.The recurring increase in the energy demand, coupled with the over- consumption of nonrenewable sources of energy has led to the exploration and use of renewable and cost effective energy resources. In this context, present study deals with the utilization of different organic waste, which contains high levels of readily biodegradable organics and are also one of the major sources of environmental pollution, as substrate in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Saccharomyces cerverciae sp. as a mediator and potassium ferricyanide as an oxidizing agent were used for the conversion of different organics into bioelectrcity generation using lab-scale double chamber MFC. The cells were connected in series with the anodic and cathodic solutions being introduced in batch and continuous modes.
The urgent need for solid waste management and environmental crises due to increasing pollution problems by extensive usage of chemicals have attracted the attention of all of us towards the most cost effective process of vermicomposting. It has come up as an effective method for disposal of organic wastes of different types and as a mode of better composting for sustainable agriculture. This book will definitely help to understand certain aspects of vermicomposting. This book describes important aspects of vermicomposting in general with emphasis on the microbiological and biochemical aspects such as microorganisms associated with vermicompost, enzymes produced by microorganisms as well as earthworm gut during vermicomposting, succession of microorganisms and contribution of microbial enzymes in vermicompost and its nature. This book is useful to students as well as scientists interested in this area. This book will be helpful also in respect of cost economics aspect of vermicomposting units to be installed by solid waste management authorities as well as farmers.
Since the discovery that plants produce compounds that inhibit the growth and multiplication of microorganisms, scientists have "invaded" the plant kingdom searching for these compounds. Unfortunately,even though most of them are active against some organisms,they are known to be weak compared to similar products from micoorganisms. The effective natural preservation of wild plants against microbial threats however, confirmS how useful these compounds will be to mankind if their mode of action is properly understood. This book presents the results of a scientific evaluation of the parts of Parkia biglobosa popularly called the "African Locust bean Tree" for their antibacterial potentials. It contains sections on methodology and other known uses of the tree which users will find useful. It should be especially useful to research scientists interested in plant research as well as to graduate and undergraduate students of pharmacy and microbiology.
Biofilms in Infection and Disease Control: A Healthcare Handbook outlines the scientific evidence and rationale for the prevention of infection, the role biofilms play in infection control, and the issues concerning their resistance to antimicrobials. This book provides practical guidance for healthcare and infection control professionals, as well as students, for preventing and controlling infection.Biofilms are the most common mode of bacterial growth in nature. Highly resistant to antibiotics and antimicrobials, biofilms are the source of more than 65 percent of health care associated infections (HCAI), which, according to the WHO, affect 1.4 million people annually. Biofilms are involved in 80 percent of all microbial infections in the body, including those associated with medical devices such as catheters, endotracheal tubes, joint prostheses, and heart valves. Biofilms are also the principle causes of infections of the middle-ear, dental caries, gingivitis, prostatitis and cystic fibrosis. Importantly, biofilms also significantly delay wound healing and reduce antimicrobial efficiency in at-risk or infected skin wounds.Provides specific procedures for controlling and preventing infectionIncludes case studies of HCAI, and identifies appropriate treatments Presents national government standards for infection prevention and controlIncludes extensive references and links to websites for further information
Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world.This gross feeder crop requires large amounts of chemical fertilizer for commercial cultivation. However, use of chemical fertilizers is not only costly even undesirable for environmental hazard. In contrast, biofertilizer, microbial inoculants are popularly used and widely accepted alternative to chemical fertilizers for plant growth and productivity. Additionally, use of eco-friendly biofertilizers ensures sustainable banana production. The book includes the isolation, identification and the mode of beneficial effects of microbial inocula on different crop plants especially the bananas. Commercial production and application techniques of biofertilizer for high yielding and quality banana cultivation are described in the book comprehensively. In a nutshell, this is a valuable book which will be useful to the students, researchers and academicians. More importantly banana farmers will be benefited with the use of this book.
Research and development for novel antimicrobial drugs having different mode of action has become an urgent task for scientific community because of escalating resistance towards currently used antibiotics in clinical practice. The menace of microbial resistance may be dealt with novel antimicrobial drugs of natural and synthetic origin as per the recent most literature. This communication is a coherent endeavor to summarize the potent antimicrobial profiles of various heterocyclic derivatives for drug design and development of promising and advanced antimicrobial drugs in search of providing better treatment to the patients globally.
Biopesticide is need of chemical free food production. Entomopathogenic fungi based biopesticides are special among microbial pesticide due to its unique mode of action. This book is complete production technology for cost effective production of mycoinsecticides based on entomopathogenic fungi. The book puts light on isolatin, identification, molecular characterization, bioefficacy, mass production, formulation, quality control, shelf life and toxicology of mycopesticides. Compatibility of chemical vs chemical pesticide is wel studied but compatibility of biopesticide vs chemical pesticide is less explored. One chapter of this book is dedicated to compatibility of mycopesticides against several chemical pesticides. Submerge and solid state fermentation methods for entomopathogenic fungi are well discussed in another chapter and locally available cheaper solid substrate based production method is disclosed. The laboratory, greenhouse and open field mass trials of the product are conducted and discussed in detail. I hope this book will be a complete guide for mycopesticide Manufacturers.