Nigeria, the most populous nation and largest economy in Africa is endowed with abundant mineral resources, including energy fuels, industrial minerals, gemstones, and metallic minerals. As West Africa has become a major destination for mining investors and exploration companies, Nigeria's mineral resources have generated considerable interest from exploration and mining companies worldwide. This book furnishes a detailed description of the deposits of metallic, non-metallic, solid energy, gemstones and industrial minerals in Nigeria with emphasis on their location, geological setting, mode of occurrence, physical and chemical characteristics, ore reserve estimates and metallogeny. It also provides a geoscientific analysis of the solid mineral sector, mineral production statistics, mining, and potential targets for mineral exploration.There are twenty chapters in the book, divided into five parts. Part I is an introduction to mineral resources and discussion of the geological and tectonic setting and classification of Nigeria's mineral deposits. Part 2 provides detailed descriptions of known deposits of eighteen metals (Fe, Au, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sn, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Ti, Bi, Cr, Ni, Pt, Mn, Al) with emphasis on their geological environment, mode of occurrence, mineralogy, origin, ore reserves mining history, and exploration. Part 3 describes the distribution, geological setting, and reserves of solid energy minerals (uranium, coal, and bitumen), while Part 4 focuses on the geological occurrence, mineralogical and physical properties, mineral reserves and uses of non-metallic minerals comprised of thirty industrial minerals/rocks and several gemstone minerals. Part 5 reviews the status of the solid minerals industry, new mining regulations, mineral production statistics, mining practices, metallogenic provinces, and assessment of resource potential and exploration targets in Nigeria. A Glossary of Common Terms in Economic and Mining Geology is included at the end of the book. This book is an invaluable source of information, not only for geology and mining students, but also for practicing geoscientists, exploration and mining professionals and administrators in government and private companies who are interested or involved in economic geology, mineral exploration, and mineral resource development in Nigeria.
Three schemes were tested for upscaling the hydraulic conductivity (K) on aquifers with bimodal K distributions. This bimodality (e.g., sand and mud deposits) was intended to capture typical geological conditions. Results were tested with a numerical model. Upscaling techniques used were inspired by schemes interpolating between arithmetic and harmonic means, but are based on percolation theory: 1) Critical Path Analysis (CPA), 2) Percolation Path Analysis (PPA, or standard scaling), and a novel scaling approach. Models chosen were both spatially correlated and uncorrelated, with important differences in critical percolation probabilities, Pc. Volume fractions Ps and 1-Ps (with Ps = sand volume fraction) were assigned to each mode of the distribution of K. The requirement for the application for CPA is to interpolate smoothly between the parallel and series configurations makes it satisfactory only for Ps Pc. PPA generally underestimates K. The novel scaling technique has the widest generality.
Microbial systems in extreme environments and in the deep biosphere may be analogous to potential life on other planetary bodies and hence may be used to investigate the possibilities of extraterrestrial life. This book examines the mode and nature of links between geological processes and microbial activities and their significance for the origin and evolution of life on the Earth and possibly on other planets. This is a truly interdisciplinary science with societal relevance.
Contains details on the geological units of Nigeria and the associated mineral resources. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 discusses the geology of the crystalline rocks and their regional distribution while the sedimentary basins constitute the subject of Part 2. Part 3 takes the mineral resources of Nigeria one on one, their geological environment, mode of occurrence, localities and where possible the reserves estimation. Thereafter, an account of the previous and current mining policies (including that of petroleum) of the Nigerian government is given and goes ahead to list some specific investment opportunities in the solid minerals sector.
Well logging has come a long way from the simple electrical devices of the early years. Today's tools are much more diverse in their applications. Among these are tools which characterize geological properties of rocks in the borehole in a way that was previously only possible with oriented cores. Thus, borehole imaging, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and paleomagnetic logging provide precise information on bedding, mineralogy, texture and age of the rocks traversed by the borehole. Many of these logs can not only be acquired in the traditional "wireline" mode, but also in logging-while-drilling mode where the sensors are placed directly behind the drill bit, and the measurements are transmitted in real-time to the surface. Combined with new technology to drill deviated wells, the geoscientist now has tools which enable him to specify and develop reservoirs more accurately. This book is for researchers, graduate students and practising geoscientists.
Predicted long ago to be present on the surface of planetary bodies by theoreticians and recently shown by interplanetary spacecraft and ground- based instruments to be ubiquitous in the Solar System, ices in a broad sense have become an extremely important subject in planetary research. Ices found on objects formed in the remote parts of the Solar System contain a message about the composition and mode of formation of our planetary system. There are also objects that contain icy materials that bear signatures of past events on a geological timescale. Their study is one of the best means of inquiring about the origins, accessing the past and anticipating the future of our Solar System. The reviews in this book collect together a series of papers covering the physics and chemistry of ices, as well as the geology of icy surfaces. They present an extensive summary of their chemical and physical properties relevant to planetary astronomy. They also provide an overview of planetary bodies that contain ices and the outstanding problems of the field. Audience: The book is intended to become a reference for researchers and graduate students. It is accessible to senior graduate students with a background in planetary science.
From guppies to Galapagos finches and from adaptive landscapes to haldanes, this compilation of contributed works provides reviews, perspectives, theoretical models, statistical developments, and empirical demonstrations exploring the tempo and mode of microevolution on contemporary to geological time scales. New developments, and reviews, of classic and novel empirical systems demonstrate the strength and diversity of evolutionary processes producing biodiversity within species. Perspectives and theoretical insights expand these empirical observations to explore patterns and mechanisms of microevolution, methods for its quantification, and implications for the evolution of biodiversity on other scales. This diverse assemblage of manuscripts is aimed at professionals, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates who desire a timely synthesis of current knowledge, an illustration of exciting new directions, and a springboard for future investigations in the study of microevolution in the wild.
Three schemes were tested for 'upscaling' the hydraulic conductivity (K) on aquifers with bimodal K distributions. This bimodality (e.g., sand and mud deposits) was intended to capture typical geological conditions. Results were tested with a numerical model. Upscaling techniques used were inspired by schemes interpolating between arithmetic and harmonic means, but are based on percolation theory: 1) Critical Path Analysis (CPA), 2) Percolation Path Analysis (PPA, or standard scaling), and a novel scaling approach. Models chosen were both spatially correlated and uncorrelated, with important differences in critical percolation probabilities, Pc. Volume fractions Ps and 1-Ps (with Ps = sand volume fraction) were assigned to each mode of the distribution of K. The requirement for the application for CPA is to interpolate smoothly between the parallel and series configurations makes it satisfactory only for PsPc. PPA generally underestimates K. The novel scaling technique has the widest generality.