Fish is a non-tetrapod chordate, i.e., an animal with a backbone that has gills throughout its life and has limbs in the shape of fins. This is an important source of food for mankind throughout the world and is a very important source of animal protein. The important constituents of fish are water, protein, lipid, ash, vitamins, minerals & carbohydrate. Protein fraction is the 50 - 95% of the total solids of the muscle tissue and is composed of sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and stroma proteins. Soon after death, fish begins to spoil by various factors and microorganisms. In the healthy live fish, all the complex biochemical reactions are balanced and the fish flesh is sterile. Various factors are responsible for fish spoilage. The quality of capture is important at determining the rate of spoilage. Notably are the fish health status, the presence of parasites, bruises and wounds on the skin and the mode by which the fish was captured. The caught fish quality depends on the handling and preservation, the fish received from the hands of the fishers after capture. The handling and the preservation practice after capture affects the degree of spoilage of the fish.
This book deals chemical investigation of two regional, medicinal plant Euphorbia royleana (Family - Euphorbiaceae) and Nerium indicum (Family - Apocynaceae) with a view to isolate and characterise their chemical constituents which is responsible for their piscicidal activity against freshwater air breathing predatory fish Channa punctatus and biochemical effects of these constituents were also under taken, because they cannot be used as environmentally safe plant origin piscicides without a study of these aspect as well. In present study, seventeen compounds were extracted and their piscicidal activities were tested, among of them only five compounds (two from E. royleana and three from N. indicum) have optimum piscicidal activities against fish Channa punctatus. After exposure to sub-lethal doses of these compounds, respiratory pathway of fish shifts from aerobic to anaerobic segment. But it is beneficial that not only the mode of action of these compounds were reversible in their action but also their toxicity persist short duration inside the aquatic environment. In consequence, these compounds can be used for controlling predatory fishes in aquatic environment without harm.
Olive oil is an important component of the diet of the countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The objective of this book is to show the interest of olive oil in human nutrition and to characterize olive oils from six Algerian cultivars by determining their fatty acid compositions using gas chromatography of methyl esters obtained by transesterification of triacylglycerolsand to analyze the bioactive compounds on the health of the unsaponifiable fraction of three olive oils from three cultivars of eastern Algeria. All the values of fatty acid compositions are in compliance with the regulation of the international Olive Oil Council and Codex Alimentarius. The "morphogramme" is designed as a radical representation of each fatty acid using an Excel spreadsheet , and each axis represents the change in the variable with respect to the mean. The "morphotypes" are real fingerprints of different oil cultivars. This mode of representation is particularly effective for the rapid visual identification of characteristics of olive oils. Analysis of bioactive compounds of tree cultivar, revealed presence of some minor constituents, including, the predominance of beta Sitosterol.
Herbal remedy, a kind of treatment of illness using various plant parts, is now gaining importance. Worldwide people now evince increased interest in medicines of plant origin in preference to synthetic drugs, primarily because of a high degree of adverse side effect associated with the latter. Herbal cure to world's most preponderant chronic endocrine disease 'diabetes' is securing global acceptance, and this has emphasized on modern scientific exploration, extraction and evaluation of folk medicines from plants. This compendium covers over 264 plants describing their identifying features, chemical constituents and their mode of uses in the treatment of various stages of diabetes and/or associated ailments. This monograph is primarily meant for students and researchers of pharmacy, pharmacognosy and herbal healers to acquaint themselves with the occurrence and botanical features of some important anti-diabetic plants. This endeavour will certainly facilitate locating and correctly identifying these natural treasure in order that their active anti-diabetic principle could be exploited with unequivocal accuracy and authenticity.
Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.)is a native of Yemen and the Hadramaunt province of Saudi Arabia belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. It is a widely used medicinal herb of the future.It is also included in the Pharmacopoeias of United States of America, Germany, United Kingdom,India,etc. The primary active constituents of senna are two rheindianthrone-8,8 di glycosides called sennoside A and B.Despite the availability of some synthetic products,sennoside formulations are increasingly used as a safe laxative.Plant nutrient status or plant nutrition is one of the important factors which controls growth and development of the various characters and determines final yield potentiality.The use of judicious combination of organic and inorganic fertilizer source is essential not only to maintain soil health but also sustain productivity.Cultivation of Medicinal Plants Organically also serves as a safe mode of medicine and in senna as a safe laxative. This book analyzes and incorporates the various aspects and form of plant nutrition from organic and inorganic point of view for influencing the growth and development of the plant.
This book covers everything about the mode of action, application and possible side effects of the most important coatings additives - in a single volume, presented in a textbook style. It reflects the needs of practical work - thus it enables the reader to rapidly gain a solid grounding in these critical, yet complex constituents of all paint formulations. It provides both an overview and in-depth basic knowledge of the most important classes of additives. The various types of damage eliminated or prevented by additives are vividly illustrated with colour photos. An indispensable companion for formulators!
The fundamental properties of deep luminescence centres in Si associated with transition metals such as Cu, Ag, Au, and Pt have been a focus of interest for decades, both as markers for these deleterious contaminants, and also in the quest for efficient Si-based light emission.This dissertation presents the results of ultra-high resolution photoluminescence studies of these centres in specially prepared, highly enriched 28-Si samples. The greatly improved spectral resolution due to this enrichment led to the discovery of isotopic fingerprints. These fingerprints have revealed that the detailed constituents of all of the centres previously studied had been identified incorrectly. They also revealed the existence of several different families of impurity complexes containing either four or five atoms chosen from Li, Cu, Ag, Au, and Pt. These centres' constituents have been determined, together with no-phonon transition energies, no-phonon isotope shifts, local vibrational mode energies, and the isotope shifts of the local vibrational mode energies. The data presented here for these centres should prove useful for the currently sought theoretical explanations of their formation, stability, and properties.
Selected research projects and architecture exploring the role of design within complex social, political and environmental conditionsToshiko Mori is a New York based architect and Professor in the Practice of Architecture at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design for many years. As a long-time member of the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on the Future of Cities, Mori led research and inquiry into sustainable architecture, enhancing cities’ livability, and creating efficient urban services. Mori is also on the board of Dassault Systems, a company connecting technology to environment and life science. And she has founded the platform VisionArc, a think tank dedicated to exploring the role of design within complex social and environmental issues.This book will focus on TMA’s projects based on research, and the impact of socially valuable projects to society. The book will illustrate how the observation of the architect operates as opposed to how the imagination of the architect manifest itself. Different chapters in the book are describing various ways of approaching the task of observation. Seven chapters are divided into specific projects and provide a look at the hidden thought processes that can take place behind the ideas, solutions, and physical manifestations or architecture. Presented projects include the Portable Concert Hall, called Paracoustica, which is an ongoing nonprofit work to come up with an affordable and sharable concert hall among many constituents in remote and underserved community, the Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research focusing on socialization among scientists as a new mode of work that promotes further discovery and teamwork. And i.e. the research on the role of libraries in the future using the example of the Brooklyn Public Library Central Branch. Another chapter is dedicated to the vernacular typology development in Senegal with the Albers foundation, and the research on social spaces for collaborative educational environments.
In this book, the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of continuous phase transitions are studied in various systems, with a special emphasis on understanding how well-established universal traits at equilibrium may be extended into the dynamic realm, going beyond the paradigmatic Kibble-Zurek mechanism of defect formation. This book reports on the existence of a quantum phase transition in a system comprising just a single spin and a bosonic mode (the quantum Rabi model). Though critical phenomena are inherent to many-body physics, the author demonstrates that this small and ostensibly simple system allows us to explore the rich phenomenology of phase transitions, both in- and out-of-equilibrium. Moreover, the universal traits of this quantum phase transition may be realized in a single trapped-ion experiment, thus avoiding the need to scale up the number of constituents. In this system, the phase transition takes place in a suitable limit of system parameters rather than in the conventional thermodynamic limit - a novel notion that the author and his collaborators have dubbed the finite-component system phase transition. As such, the results gathered in this book will open promising new avenues in our understanding and exploration of quantum critical phenomena.